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تاریخ : پنجشنبه 7 اردیبهشت 1396 04:07 ب.ظ
قلدری نوعی سوء استفاده است. اولونوس (1978) قلدری را به عنوان استفاده منظم از پرخاشگری فیزیکی یا روانی توسط یک یا چند کودک علیه همسالان خود تعریف کرده است.
نتیجه تصویری برای قلدری نوجوان

انواع قلدری شامل زبانی (مانند اسم گذاشتن، مسخره کردن، تهدید کردن، غیبت کردن یا پراکندن شایعه)، فیزیکی ( مانند کتک زدن، مشت زدن، هل دادن، دزدیدن )، اجتماعی (مانند نادیده گرفتن، جداسازی یا محروم کردن شخص از فعالیت‌های اجتماعی)، فیزیولوژیکی( مانند تعقیب کردن، دست انداختن، آزار و اذیت کردن یا ترساندن) و سایبری( مانند قلدری از طریق دستگاه‌های الکترونیک؛ پیامک دادن، ایمیل فرستادن، پیام شخصی فرستادن، ارسال پست در رسانه‌های اجتماعی یا آپلود تصاویر مستهجن و توهین‌آمیز).
مردم به این علت نسبت به دیگران قلدری می‌کنند چون می‌خواهند احساس محبوبیت کنند، حسود هستند، می‌خواهند احساس قدرت کنند، احساس تهدید می‌کنند، می‌خواهند از مشکلات‌شان فرار کنند و احساس تزلزل می‌کنند.

قربانی ، مجرم و شاهدان قلدری ممکن است از عواقب طولانی مدت این عمل رنج ببرند که این عواقب شامل اثرات مخرب بر سلامت جسمی، روانی و اجتماعی فرد میباشد.به همین دلیل باید به نوجوانان آموزش داد تا بتوانند در مقابل قلدری بایستند.

یکی از نکات مهم این است که باید به نوجوان آموخت زمان‌هایی هست که باید قلدربازی را نادیده بگیرند، زمان‌هایی نیز باید واکنش نشان دهند و زمان‌هایی هم هست که باید فردی بالغ را در جریان بگذارند. دانستن تفاوت این موارد حائز اهمیت است. ارزیابی کلمات و اعمال فرد قلدر می‌تواند در تصمیم‌گیری نوع رفتار به نوجوان کمک کند.
• قلدرهایی که فقط می‌خواهند با رفتار خود نوجوان را خشمگین کنند را باید نادیده‌ بگیرند.
• در مقابل اعمال و گفته‌هایی که خصومت‌آمیز یا تهدیدآمیز نیستند باید واکنش نشان دهند.
قلدرها اهداف راحت را ترجیح می‌دهند، نه افرادی که در مقابلشان می‌ایستند. اگر موضع بگیرند و واکنش نشان دهند، ممکن است عقب بکشند و بی خیال شوند یا ممکن است طرف مقابل خود را امتحان کنند که آیا کم می‌آورد یا خیر.

وقتی فردی قلدر قصد امتحان کردن نوجوان را دارد، نوجوان میتواند حاضر جواب باشی واز جواب‌هایی مثل «درست نیست» یا «بس کن این دروغا رو» استفاده کند .

• اگر امنیت جسمانی ‌نوجوان در خطر است فورا باید به یک فرد بالغ قابل اعتماد خبر دهد.
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منبع : کتاب کار روشهای پیشگیری از قلدری و زورگویی در نوجوان .
نویسنده : ریچل کاسدا لمن.

مترجم : مریم زینالی
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